From M.E. Blake, ibid. pl. 23, 1.
2. Entrance floor of the Casa di Trittolemo, Pompeii, with the "Combined six-partite and tri-partite Lily Signs"
The whole composition is inscribed into a circumference, which is wholly formed by an infinite row of arrow-like triangles, turning outside.
The inner corners of the square frame are filled by two versions of the tri-partite Lily sign.
As this Floor has undergone much repair outer details are missing.
Its color appearance is the same as that of the Casa di Trittolemo: i.e. the central Lily composition appears as black on a white background, while the Pelta signs in contrast, are in white on a black background.
in free style, on the upper side two juxtaposed Dolphins and just opposite, on the lower side, two Negroes in free movement like swimming, with a broken amphora between them.
On the third side (the left one) a half round Niche is added, the Floor of which filled with an elaborately stylized tri-partite design of a Shoshan.
This Niche may have been a Prayer Niche. Its Lily Floor symbolizing the Torah (the Eduth, as we saw), while the broken Amphora may be an allegorical indication of the Greco-Roman mythological belief, which has been "broken" by the new belief.
The two Dolphins, opposite, are ancient Greek symbols, accepted now by Neo-Christianity as Symbols of Christ as protector and savior of the human soul.
The whole of the Casa di Cryphoradon Floor in Pompeii has a kind of documentary value for a changing world, with Christ as its savior and Messiah, borne by the religious movement of the Judeo- Christians.
5. The Mosaic Floor in the Museum of Alexandria
35. Combined 12-petalled Lily core with 12 trefoil Lilies between them elongating with 12 four pointed shields. Between the latter 12 much stylized Lily ornaments. (From: M.E. Blake pl. 22,2)
These 12 three partite Lily flowers are “answered” now by 12 elongated triangular Shields, which have little in common with the former Pelta signs and which are placed opposite the tri- partite Lily signs instead of the former lanceolate points of the 12-partite core.
Instead of the former six enclosing Pelta signs just opposite the points of the central Lily-core are placed now 12 much stylized Lily signs with two voluting-petals, turned inside.
This elaborate design is enclosed, now, in a black and white circumference sitting itself in a simple white square frame. The four corners of the latter are filled with four Amphoras of Greek shape. The whole composition is accompanied by a version of the Meander Style ornament, above and below. All the inner design in the round circumference is given in black on a white background, while the amphoras in the spendrils of the square frame are in white design on a black ground.
6. The Jewish religious tradition in the Judeo-Christian movement
This formal dependence of the second group from the first one can be explained only on the base of the social composition of both groups – which is Jewish. Both groups were strongly adhering to their ancient religious tradition – the Torah from Sinai.
So it becomes highly probable, that the first group composed by the combined six-partite and three-partite Lily Signs, but not yet with the Magen David, was accepted by the second group, the Magen David group. It was created only after Christ's resurrection of 28-29 C.E. for reason of the esoteric significance of the Davidic Sign.
Italian Mosaic Floors with David’s Star outside of Pompeii
Also outside of Pompeii, in a good number of Italian cities, such Mosaic-Floors with the Davidic sign exist. The Museum of Aquileia is especially devoted to them. Yet, in the context of our work we cannot deal with them extensively.
To the Aquileia Monastero Museum belongs a Mosaic Floor with David’s Shield which is most similar to the Ein Yael Floor in its design and looks like a “forerunner” of the latter (Pl. ).
36. Mosaic Floor with David’s Shield at Aquileia - most similar to the Ein Yael Mosaic Floor, but without the additional Signs of the Pelta and the Lily there, a kind of forruner to the Ein Yael Floor
It is composed by a single dominating Davidic Star traced by a two-strand Guilloche. It is framed by a two-strand circumference, only that in Aquileia the Double Crew-step circles enclosing the outer Guilloche circle of Ein Yael are missing.
In the same way the additional ornamentation of juxtaposed tree-partite Lily signs and Pelta signs in the triangular outer spaces of Ein Yael (between the outer points of David’s Star) is missing. Instead, the six triangular spaces in Aquileia are filled with the rhomboid shape of the Lozenge. The hexagonal center of the Aquileia Floor is filled by a simple “knob” of white color and has not yet the six petalled Lily sign as at Ein Yael.
The Aquileia floor is accompanied by two stripes of a two-strand Guilloche ornament left and right and, below, by an infinite row of the Greek ivy ornament. The single ivy ornaments are bound together by half circles.
It is obvious, that the Aquileia floor is an early stage in the development of the Magen David floors. While the Ein Yael floor belongs to the 2nd century C.E. the Aquileia floor seems to belong to the 1st.
An additional Floor of the Aquileia Museum is distinguished by the multiple design of the Magen David filling the ground in infinite progression. The Stars appear in black color on a white background and their hexagonal centers are filled with the six petalled Lily flower design. These flowers are designed in a quite naturalistic approach with the petals in movement and not yet in flat geometric abstract design as later. So, this floor seems to be still nearer to the Hellenistic art approach and seems to be one of the earliest floors of the Judeo-Christian congregation.
Two multiple Mosaic Floors at the Villa Romana del Casale/Piazza Armerina/Sicily
37. Mosaic Floor of the Villa Romana del Casale (Sicily) 2nd century C.E.
From: A. Carandin, A. Rici, M. De Vos, Filosofiana, La Villa di Piazza Armerina, Palermo, 1982
The Villa Romana del Casale is looked upon as the “richest, largest and most complex collection of late Roman mosaics in the world” (. The overwhelming part of the Mosaic Floors, discovered by excavations (by Paolo Orsi in 1929, Giuseppe Cultrera in 1935-39 and by Gino Vinicio Gentile in 1950-60, and some localized excavations by Andrea Carandini in the 1970s) are in the figurative style of the mythological heritage of Greek antiquity, belonging to the 6th to the 8th centuries C.E. But, there was discovered also an earlier stage belonging to the 2nd and the 4th century, which contained Mosaic Floors in the abstract-geometric style. To two Floors in the well conceived multiple style (we know already from Aquileia and the Casa Trittolemo of Pompeii) our interest is concentrated: while Floor no. I is composed in a light open design with the ornaments in white color on the background of black color , Floor no. II is wholly covered by a tight and closed two-strand Guilloche design of the ornamentation, which is in infinite movement, not leaving any open space in the design of the Floor. Yet, the dominating ornament in both cases is David’s Star, even in different shapes.
38. Mosaic Floor of the Villa Romana del Casale (Sicily) 4th century C.E.
From: A. Carandin, A. Rici, M. De Vos, Filosofiana, La Villa di Piazza Armerina, Palermo, 1982
Floor no. I is composed in its entirety by seven vertical rows of David’s Star with subsidiary smaller ornaments between them. One row has always David’s Star in straight position with the small ornament of “Solomons’ knot” (an ancient Jewish ornament) between them. But the second row beside the first one has David’ Star turned around by 45 degrees, and the stars connected by subsidiary ornaments of more recent invention like the rose, the square, two round ones and others.
All the stars are in white colour on the common background of black colour together with their hexagonal frames.
The alternate arrangement of the Stars after the system a b a b allows for the infinite contact of the Stars by their outer frames with each other, converting by that the whole Floor in a dense network.
Floor no. II is like floor no. I of multiple shape, but this time not in loose than in tough composition. The whole Floor is covered by a dense network of Lozenges traced by two-strand Guilloches, which form, at the same time, the Hexagram of the Davidic Stars, i.e. one design is overlapping the other, so that both designs are identical. This highly inventive design is wholly covering the Floor, not leaving any empty space.
The centers of the large Davidic Stars are occupied by broad circular frames (formed by a version of the Meander motive), containing what seems to be the portrait of the owner of the Villa or the portrait of a black servant . Other circular frames are filled by birds, by two fishes, by plants or some geometric ornament.
If, by the inclusion of portraits, animal- and plant -life in the dense and infinite geometric network of Floor no. II, ''Nature'' and human kind is represented, in floor no I, by its loose and open composition, its rhythmic and alternating design, Gods’ sovereign rule of the Universe is symbolized.
In connection with the dating of both Floors it seems reasonable to assume, that Floor no. II belongs to the 4th century C.E., the Constantinian era, for reason of its portraiture and Nature-life, while the absolute abstraction of Floor no I makes the 2nd century the most convenient time.
All the subsidiary ornaments of Floor I are in straight contact with the Davidic Stars creating a close network of the whole Floor.
As each of the hexagonal centers of David’s Stars is filled with the six-partite Shoshan (Lily), which is the sign of the “Eduth” (Torah, as we saw), the entire Floor forms an overwhelming multiple Symbol of God’s everlasting sovereign Rule and his Covenant from Har-Sinai. It is obvious that the early mosaics of the Casale Villa are the creations of Judeo-Christian congregations; Magen David is the dominating ornament in them.